Information will be provided prior to these procedures.

Coronary Angiography

A coronary angiogram is an X-ray of the coronary arteries (the arteries that supply blood to your heart) to see if they are narrowed or blocked.
It is sometimes called ‘cardiac catheterisation’.
It uses a special dye (contrast) that is injected into your arteries via a catheter inserted in the groin or wrist and advanced until it reaches the heart.
The angiogram can help your cardiologist to decide the best course of treatment, including coronary angioplasty, coronary bypass surgery or medication.

Coronary Angioplasty and Stenting

A coronary angioplasty is a procedure to stretch open a blocked or narrowed artery. It is performed in a similar way to coronary angiography, sometimes as part of the same procedure.
A catheter is inserted in the groin or wrist and advanced until it reaches the heart.
The catheter is used to inject contrast and to insert a small balloon to widen the blocked artery (angioplasty) and/or a small, wire mesh tube (stent) to keep the artery open.

Right Heart Catheterisation

Right Heart Catheterisation may be performed during a coronary angiogram.
It is used for doctors to review and investigate the flow and pressure within the right side of the heart.
The Cardiologist will insert a thin catheter into a vein in the groin, unlike in angiogram where the catheter is inserted in an artery. It is used to see how well or poorly your heart is pumping, and to measure the pressures in your heart and lungs.

Electrophysiology Study

An electrophysiology study (EP study) is a invasive procedure which tests the electrical conduction system of the heart to assess the electrical activity and conduction properties of the heart. Indications can include palpitations or blackouts. This type of study is performed by an Electrophysiologist.

Catheters are inserted into sheaths via groin veins until they your heart, guided by an x-ray machine.
Your doctor uses electrical impulses to make your heart beat at different speeds and uses this information to find the area that is causing the irregular heartbeats.

It is often performed immediately prior to a radiofrequency ablation (RFA), but may be performed as a stand alone procedure.


Ablation uses energy (eg radiofrequency) to remove small areas of heart tissue that cause abnormal heart rhythms called arrhythmias . It is performed by an Electrophysiologist who will have discussed indications with you.

Your doctor will have determined the exact location of your arrhythmia from an Electrophysiology Study. One or more thin, flexible tubes called catheters are inserted into a blood vessel and guided to the heart. The catheter tip produces a pulse of energy, which will scar tiny areas of heart tissue that are responsible for the abnormal heart rhythm. This will destroy the source of the abnormal electrical activity and correct the abnormal heartbeats.


Cardioversion is a method of restoring an arrhythmia (abnormal heart rhythm) back to normal by using an electrical shock on specialised pads on the patient’s chest. The sudden electrical jolt restores the abnormal heart beat to normal rhythm. Up to three shocks in increasing energy may be given to restore a regular heart rhythm. Most elective or “non-emergency” cardioversions are performed to treat atrial fibrillation.

Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI)

Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) is a minimally invasive procedure where a new valve is inserted without removing the old, damaged valve. The new valve is placed inside the diseased valve.

Somewhat similar to placing a stent in an artery, the TAVI approach delivers a fully collapsible replacement valve to the valve site through a catheter.
Once the new valve is expanded, it pushes the old valve leaflets out of the way and the tissue in the replacement valve takes over the job of regulating blood flow.


Valvuloplasty is a catheter based procedure to repair or open a narrowed heart valve without surgery.
The “ballooning of a heart valve” is performed by passing a balloon through the valve and inflating it to widen the opening.
It is a complicated procedure requiring hospital admission.

Myocardial Biopsy

Myocardial biopsy is a catheter based procedure undertaken to remove a very small segment of heart muscle for specialist analysis in the pathology laboratory. It is undertaken in a fashion similar to Right Heart Catheterisation (above).
When the results of the cardiac biopsy are available, your doctor will discuss them with you.

Percutaneous Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) Closure

This procedure attempts to close septal defects which are openings in the wall (septum) of your heart.
An atrial septal defect (ASD) is a hole in the interatrial septum that is a muscular wall separating the heart’s two upper chambers, called the atria.
This hole is attempted to be closed/blocked with a device delivered to the heart via a catheter.